A desire in mankind's history never realized...
And He will judge between the nations, And will render decisions for many peoples; And they will hammer their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks. Nation will not lift up sword against nation, And never again will they learn war.--Isaiah 2, Verse 4.
And He will judge between many peoples And render decisions for mighty, distant nations. Then they will hammer their swords into plowshares And their spears into pruning hooks; Nation will not lift up sword against nation, And never again will they train for war.--Micah 4, Verse 3.
Nuclear weapons: Put an end to Japanese imperialism, became a political tool of global supremacy, established nation parody...and proposed to reform the Earth. Operation "Plowshare" was the United States' term for the development of techniques to use nuclear explosives for peaceful construction purposes...so stated in the early 60s.
The official program was inaugurated on June 19th, 1957 with visions of peaceful uses of nuclear weapons: To improve the Panama locks, mine minerals, ease access to natural gas reserves, enlarge harbors, build highways in difficult areas. Nothing was ever done except via testing and has been discontinued. The two players were the United States and the Soviet Union and the whole operation ceased with the enactment of the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty [see below] in 1976 and stated...
"...the signatories agreed: not to carry out any individual nuclear explosions having a yield [the explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy discharged when the weapon is detonated, expressed usually in the equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene, either in kilotons or megatons, but sometimes also in terajoules] exceeding 150 kilotons; not to carry out any group explosion (consisting of a number of individual explosions) having an aggregate yield exceeding 1,500 kilotons; and not to carry out any group explosion having an aggregate yield exceeding 150 kilotons unless the individual explosions in the group could be identified and measured by agreed verification procedures. The parties also reaffirmed their obligations to comply fully with the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963.
The parties reserve the right to carry out nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes in the territory of another country if requested to do so, but only in full compliance with the yield limitations and other provisions of the PNE Treaty and in accord with the Non-Proliferation Treaty.
Articles IV and V of the PNE Treaty set forth the agreed verification arrangements. In addition to the use of national technical means, the Treaty states that information and access to sites of explosions will be provided by each side, and includes a commitment not to interfere with verification means and procedures.
The protocol to the PNE Treaty sets forth the specific agreed arrangements for ensuring that no weapon-related benefits precluded by the Threshold Test Ban Treaty are derived by carrying out a nuclear explosion used for peaceful purposes, including provisions for use of the hydrodynamic yield measurement method, seismic monitoring and on-site inspection.
The agreed statement that accompanies the Treaty specifies that a "peaceful application" of an underground nuclear explosion would not include the developmental testing of any nuclear explosive.
Treaty between the United States of America and The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes
Signed at Washington and Moscow May 28, 1976
Entered into force December 11, 1990
Entered into force December 11, 1990
The United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, hereinafter referred to as the Parties,
Proceeding from a desire to implement Article III of the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests, which calls for the earliest possible conclusion of an agreement on underground nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes,
Reaffirming their adherence to the objectives and principles of the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and the Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests, and their determination to observe strictly the provisions of these international agreements,
Desiring to assure that underground nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes shall not be used for purposes related to nuclear weapons,
Desiring that utilization of nuclear energy be directed only toward peaceful purposes,
Desiring to develop appropriately cooperation in the field of underground nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes,
Have agreed as follows:
1. The Parties enter into this Treaty to satisfy the obligations in Article III of the Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests, and assume additional obligations in accordance with the provisions of this Treaty.
2. This Treaty shall govern all underground nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes conducted by the Parties after March 31, 1976.
For the purposes of this Treaty:
(a) "explosion" means any individual or group underground nuclear explosion for peaceful purposes;
(b) "explosive" means any device, mechanism or system for producing an individual explosion;
(c) "group explosion" means two or more individual explosions for which the time interval between successive individual explosions does not exceed five seconds and for which the emplacement points of all explosives can be interconnected by straight line segments, each of which joins two emplacement points and each of which does not exceed 40 kilometers.
1. Each Party, subject to the obligations assumed under this Treaty and other international agreements, reserves the right to:
(a) carry out explosions at any place under its jurisdiction or control outside the geographical boundaries of test sites specified under the provisions of the Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests; and
(b) carry out, participate or assist in carrying out explosions in the territory of another State at the request of such other State.
2. Each Party undertakes to prohibit, to prevent and not to carry out at any place under its jurisdiction or control, and further undertakes not to carry out, participate or assist in carrying out anywhere:
(a) any individual explosion having a yield exceeding 150 kilotons;
(b) any group explosion:
(1) having an aggregate yield exceeding 150 kilotons except in ways that will permit identification of each individual explosion and determination of the yield of each individual explosion in the group in accordance with the provisions of Article IV of and the Protocol to this Treaty;
(2) having an aggregate yield exceeding one and one-half megatons;
(c) any explosion which does not carry out a peaceful application;
(d) any explosion except in compliance with the provisions of the Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and other international agreements entered into by that Party.
3. The question of carrying out any individual explosion having a yield exceeding the yield specified in paragraph 2(a) of this article will be considered by the Parties at an appropriate time to be agreed.
1. For the purpose of providing assurance of compliance with the provisions of this Treaty, each Party shall:
(a) use national technical means of verification at its disposal in a manner consistent with generally recognized principles of international law; and
(b) provide to the other Party information and access to sites of explosions and furnish assistance in accordance with the provisions set forth in the Protocol to this Treaty.
2. Each Party undertakes not to interfere with the national technical means of verification of the other Party operating in accordance with paragraph 1(a) of this article, or with the implementation of the provisions of paragraph 1(b) of this article.
1. To promote the objectives and implementation of the provisions of this Treaty, the Parties shall establish promptly a Joint Consultative Commission within the framework of which they will:
(a) consult with each other, make inquiries and furnish information in response to such inquiries, to assure confidence in compliance with the obligations assumed;
(b) consider questions concerning compliance with the obligations assumed and related situations which may be considered ambiguous;
(c) consider questions involving unintended interference with the means for assuring compliance with the provisions of this Treaty;
(d) consider changes in technology or other new circumstances which have a bearing on the provisions of this Treaty; and
(e) consider possible amendments to provisions governing underground nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes.
2. The Parties through consultation shall establish, and may amend as appropriate, Regulations for the Joint Consultative Commission governing procedures, composition and other relevant matters.
1. The Parties will develop cooperation on the basis of mutual benefit, equality, and reciprocity in various areas related to carrying out underground nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes.
2. The Joint Consultative Commission will facilitate this cooperation by considering specific areas and forms of cooperation which shall be determined by agreement between the Parties in accordance with their constitutional procedures.
3. The Parties will appropriately inform the International Atomic Energy Agency of results of their cooperation in the field of underground nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes.
1. Each Party shall continue to promote the development of the international agreement or agreements and procedures provided for in Article V of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and shall provide appropriate assistance to the International Atomic Energy Agency in this regard.
2. Each Party undertakes not to carry out, participate or assist in the carrying out of any explosion in the territory of another State unless that State agrees to the implementation in its territory of the international observation and procedures contemplated by Article V of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and the provisions of Article IV of and the Protocol to this Treaty, including the provision by that State of the assistance necessary for such implementation and of the privilpeges and immunities specified in the Protocol.
1. This Treaty shall remain in force for a period of five years, and it shall be extended for successive five-year periods unless either Party notifies the other of its termination no later than six months prior to its expiration. Before the expiration of this period the Parties may, as necessary, hold consultations to consider the situation relevant to the substance of this Treaty. However, under no circumstances shall either Party be entitled to terminate this Treaty while the Treaty on the Limitationp of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests remains in force.
2. Termination of the Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests shall entitle either Party to withdraw from this Treaty at any time.
3. Each Party may propose amendments to this Treaty. Amendments shall enter into force on the day of the exchange of instruments of ratification of such amendments.
1. This Treaty, including the Protocol which forms an integral part hereof, shall be subject to ratification in accordance with the constitutional procedures of each Party. This Treaty shall enter into force on the day of the exchange of instruments of ratification which exchange shall take place simultaneously with the exchange of instruments of ratification of the Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests.
2. This Treaty shall be registered pursuant to Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
DONE at Washington and Moscow, on May 28, 1976, in duplicate, in the English and Russian languages, both texts being equally authentic.
FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA:
GERALD R. FORD
The President of the United States of America
FOR THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS:
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU